Where is the Lava?
Hawaii Eruption Updates for 2021
If you're heading to Hawaii's Big Island, then one of the first questions you may have is, 'Where is the lava? I want to see lava! Wait, or is it magma?' First, yes, typically it's lava you're looking for - lava is anything that's erupted from the volcano (to the surface), and it comes in two flavors, Pahoehoe and A`a. You can read more about the two lava types on our Hawaii Geology page. If it's still within the volcano, it's known as magma.
September-October 2021 Eruption Update
Lava has Returned to Halemaumau Crater in HVNP!
For the first time since May 2021, ACTIVE flows are now occurring inside Halemaumau Crater at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. See our 'What's Happening Now' section below for current information.
Locating the Lava Flows
Now, to answer the question of 'where.' Well, the answer to that question depends on the mood of Pele (the Hawaiian Volcano Goddess). And Madame Pele is very unpredictable.
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is open 24 hours a day, so your chance to see glowing lava (from near or far) is pretty good when the volcano is actively erupting (it's periodically erupting only at the summit in Halemaumau currently), especially when it's dark. Just look for the red glow. As always, the Park Rangers at the entry station are your best guide to current conditions - we advise all visitors to check in with them before exploring the park.
Ultimately, in our opinion, even if you don't get to see any flowing lava in person, which you might not currently, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the Big Island are well worth the time.
Kilauea & Volcanoes National Park Lava Viewing Guide
- Timeline of Events:
- Hike to the lava yourself
- Or check our recommendations for Guided Kilauea Tours
- Helicopter tours over the volcano
- Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Maps
Separately, don't forget to review our Hawaii Safety Guide for the Volcano Area (and other important Hawaii safety tips).
What's Happening Now?
Last Updated as of 10/18/21
September-October 2021 Eruption
According to Hawaii News Now, Kilauea volcano, on the Big Island of Hawaii is currently erupting at its summit, creating small fountains and thick plumes of smoke - flooding the floor of Halemaumau Crater with fresh lava flows.
The latest eruption within Halemaumau Crater started about 20 minutes after 3 p.m. Wednesday - September 29, 2021; currently, all lava is confined within the crater. The eruption came after a day of increased earthquake activity at the volcano and summit.
The eruption is currently confined to Halemaumau crater, within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. HVO does not see any indication of activity migrating elsewhere on Kilauea volcano and expects the eruption to remain confined to the summit region.
The last eruption at Kilauea ended in May (see below) after an explosive beginning five months earlier in December 2020. It is unclear how long the current eruption will continue. Kilauea summit eruptions over the past 200 years have lasted from less than a day to more than a decade. This ongoing eruption is similar to the most recent Kilauea eruption, which was also confined to Halemaumau crater and generated a lava lake; the most recent eruption lasted approximately five months, from December 2020 to May 2021.
If you're currently on the Big Island, this is a great time to witness the glow of an eruption up close on the summit; as usual, nighttime viewing is best. Dress accordingly as it's 4,000+ ft in elevation at the summit of Kilauea and it can get fairly chilly after dark.
Activity Summary*: Kilauea volcano is erupting. As of this morning, October 18, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaumau crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaumau crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.
Halema'uma'u Lava Lake Observations*: Lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaumau crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of approximately 788 meters (2585 ft) above sea level when measured by field crews on October 17, which is a total increase of about 45 meters (148 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. The total erupted volume since the beginning of the eruption was estimated to be about 15.9 million cubic meters (4.2 billion gallons) on October 8. The western vent had fountain heights of 5 m (16 ft) observed by field crews on October 17. The fountain has built a spatter cone with an opening facing east from which lava is flowing into the lake. The central island and several of the smaller eastern islets from the 2020 lava lake are still above the lake surface along with an island of the 2020 western vent rampart in the northwest part of the lake. The lava lake is not level across its surface due to the location of the vent in the western end. Areas closer to the vent are about 2-3 meters (7-10 ft) higher in elevation compared to the north and south part of the lake and 8 meters (26 ft) higher than the east end of the lava lake. Lava surface activity such as crustal foundering is seen on the western end of the lake and north and south of the central island but is no longer observed on the east end of the lake.
Potential Hazards: This new eruption at Kilauea's summit is occurring within a closed area of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Therefore, high levels of volcanic gas are the primary hazard of concern, as this hazard can have far-reaching effects downwind. Large amounts of volcanic gas—primarily water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2)—are continuously released during the eruptions of Kilauea Volcano. As SO2 is released from the summit, it reacts in the atmosphere to create the visible haze known as vog (volcanic smog) that has been observed downwind of Kīlauea. Click here to also view the latest Vog report for the Big Island of Hawaii.
*Activity Summary and Lava Lake Observations courtesy of the NPS
Follow HVNP for additional updates
This situation is rapidly evolving and the Hawaii Volcanoes Observatory will continue to issue statements when more information is available to the public. For now, you can receive ongoing eruption updates by following the social media accounts of the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter).
- View the live cameras located at the Kilauea summit.
- Additional updates can be found on the Hawaii Volcanoes National park website.
- Animated GIF of the latest webcam footage from the current eruption
Additional video footage and imagery, of the current eruption at Halemaumau Crater in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, can be found below.
Big Island Volcano Tour Suggestions
Noteworthy Events at Kilauea Volcano
Click any link below to learn more...
- 2020-2021 Eruption - Lava returns to Halemaumau
- 2019 - Lava Lake Develops in Halemaumau Crater
- 2018 - Eruption in the East Rift Zone
- Previous Historic Eruptions
Final update for the December 2020 - May 2021 Eruption
Observations indicate that the eruption in Halema‘uma‘u at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano has paused. Within the past couple of days, no active lava was observed. No glow is visible at night.
- Kilauea Volcano is no longer erupting as of the latest update. Lava supply to the Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake has ceased and sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased to near pre-eruption background levels.
- Accordingly, the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is lowering the Volcano Alert Level for ground-based hazards from WATCH to ADVISORY and the Aviation Color Code from ORANGE to YELLOW.
- HVO continues to closely monitor Kīlauea Volcano for signs of renewed activity. Should volcanic activity change significantly a new Volcanic Activity Notice will be issued.
We'll also continue to monitor the eruption updates from the NPS and HVO and update this page accordingly with any changes that occur.
- Animated GIF of eruption first occurring on December 20, 2020
Lava returns to Halemaumau Crater
September 2021 Eruption
As noted above, this eruption began on September 29, 2021. We will continue to post updates on this page, as the eruption continues. This section will be updated accordingly.
December 2020 - May 2021 Eruption
After the huge changes that occurred with the 2018 eruption and subsequent summit collapse, some had speculated that Kilauea would not erupt for a significant period of time. Pele had other plans, however.
At approximately 9:30 p.m. HST on Sunday - December 20, 2020, the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) detected a new glow within the Halemaumau crater at the summit of Kilauea Volcano.
Within Halemaumau, an eruption had commenced at Kilauea's summit caldera. Previously, as noted below the caldera had been filling with a green-ish water lake, but that quickly disappeared, as lava has once again made an appearance inside of the crater. Within one week, what had been a history-making lake of water was replaced by a nearly 600-foot deep lake of molten lava.
A magnitude 4.4 earthquake additionally hit about an hour after the volcano began erupting. By the morning of 12/21/20, two of the three initial fissure vents on the wall of the Halemaumau crater were feeding a growing lava lake.
The eruption paused in late May 2021, after several months of activity in the Halemaumau crater.
2020-2021 Eruption Images
Halemaumau Crater at Kilauea Volcano
Development of Water Lake in 2019
On August 1, 2019, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) scientists confirmed a growing pond of water in the recently enlarged Halemumau crater. Initially, it appeared as small, separate turquoise ponds, but over time, the small ponds united and began to grow dramatically. For a period of time, the depth of the growing lake was increasing several inches per day.
In the space of just over one year's time, a persistent lake of lava had vanished in a dramatic collapse, only to be replaced by the first lake of water to be recorded at Kilauea in modern history.
Over the course of its relatively short lifespan, the lake grew to be approximately 160 feet (49 m) deep. That's taller than a 10-story building, for reference. The lake also changed color due to the precipitation of iron-sulfate minerals and SO2 being dissolved into the water.
2018 East Rift Zone Eruption
Kilauea caldera has undergone a tremendous amount of change over the last decade, and prior to the eruption in December 2020, had not been very active since 2018. See the maps immediately below to get an idea of how volatile the years between 2009 and 2018 were at the park or explore this geo-narrative by the USGS about the 2018 eruption.
In the first days of May 2018, the lava lake that had existed in Halemaumau crater for almost a decade began to drain away. Magma moved from the summit of Kilauea to the Lower East Rift Zone, marked by a series of earthquakes. On May 3rd, the first fissures opened up in the subdivision of Leilani Estates and the massive eruption of 2018 began to unfold in lower Puna.
With less magma left to support the summit, the Halemaumau crater began to collapse. Every 28 hours, on average, the ground within the summit caldera of Kilauea sank with dramatic collapse events. By the end of the 2018 eruption, the Halemaumau crater had sunk by 1,600 feet (488m), and its diameter more than doubled.
Activity circa 2018 East Rift Zone Eruption
Prior to 2018, you could just as easily have witnessed lava flows chewing on Chain of Craters Road as you could view a steam plume from afar. Kilauea is a living, breathing volcano with a mind of its own.
Kilauea's oldest lava flows are dated between 210,000 and 280,000 years ago. Those flows are considered generally young, geologically speaking, for an active volcano.
For the last one thousand years, Kilauea's ongoing eruptions have dramatically shaped the southeast portion of the Big Island of Hawaii.
The most recent 100 years of volcanic activity at Kilauea can be divided into seven distinct eruptions.
Summaries are provided below from the USGS website:
Lava Viewing Guide
Hiking to Lava
Check THIS SITE for updates on lava flows and Kilauea activity. We've also included some maps below to generally help provide you an overview of the park and where the lava might be located during your visit. Just remember, this is an active living and breathing volcano and things regularly change, the maps are always out of date for that reason to some extent.
If the flows have recently been near the surface within the Park and IF it's safe to access (check with the Rangers), it's pretty easy to locate the lava yourself - so don't feel like you HAVE to join a tour to experience a lava flow. Before heading out, be sure you've prepared accordingly - dress appropriately with the right footwear for your adventure; be sure to keep water with you at all times, it can be easy to get dehydrated on the lava fields. Sunscreen is also your best friend on this part of the island.
As always, remember that lava flows outside the Park's boundary are on private property and you should not explore these locations without a guide who has permission to properly access the property.
Kilauea Volcano Tours
Our recommendation for Kilauea & lava tours is to contact Scott and Becky at The Volcano Van. They offer amazing tours of Kilauea, including several tours that depart from Kona.
Helicopter Volcano Tours
Another great option is to take a helicopter tour over Pu`u O`o for a look into the bowels of the earth. While that too could change tomorrow, as lava has a mind of its own - a helicopter tour is your BEST opportunity to see lava.
Our recommendation for helicopters tours is to fly with Safari Helicopters. They have some amazing tours over the volcano that are perfect for experiecing Kilauea from above.